Quinta-feira, 22 de agosto de 2019

ISSN 1983-392X

Migalaw English

por Luciana Carvalho Fonseca

Grand jury e outras colocações nominais como termo jury

segunda-feira, 26 de abril de 2010


Grand jury e outras colocações nominais como termo jury

Inauguramos o tema 'As colocações do termo jury' faz duas semanas. Na coluna de hoje, procuramos apresentar as principais colocações nominais formadas pelo termo em questão na estrutura 'adjetivo + jury'. Entre elas, a que mais ocorre é precisamente grand jury.

Um grand jury ou jury of indictment é composto por, em regra, 23 membros reunidos em segredo (closed proceedings). Tem a função de, em diversas oportunidades, durante determinado espaço de tempo (e.g. por um mês), apreciar as provas (evidence) apresentadas apenas pela acusação (prosecution) – i.e. sem a presença das partes (ex parte) – e decidir se há indícios suficientes (probable cause) de que o suspeito (suspect) tenha praticado um crime.

Se a decisão for afirmativa, ela é expressa por escrito em um instrumento chamado bill of indictment ou true bill. Como resultado, de suspeito, o indivíduo passa a réu (defendant) e é levado à presença de um juiz (judge) durante uma audiência denominada arraignment para declarar-se culpado ou inocente (plead guilty or not guilty).

Dependendo da resposta o acusado é levado a julgamento por júri (jury trial ou trial by jury). O julgamento (trial) é realizado por um corpo de jurados menor, – normalmente, por 6 a 12 jurados (jury members) –, que compõem o chamado petit jury ou trial jury (júri ou pequeno júri), perante o qual, ao contrário do que ocorre no grand jury, comparecem ambas as partes e seus respectivos representantes.

Em síntese, o grand jury realiza uma triagem dos casos levados a julgamento pelo petit jury. Ambos estão previstos na constituição americana. O primeiro na Grand Jury Clause, isto é, na Emenda n.º 51. E o segundo, como já vimos, no Artigo III, Seção 22 e na Emenda n.º 73. Entretanto, ao passo que ser julgado por um júri é garantia de todo cidadão americano que a ela não renunciar, passar por um grande júri não necessariamente, pois a Grand Jury Clause não foi recepcionada pela Emenda n.º 14, 14. Na prática, isso significa que os estados possuem poderes para extingui-lo. E muitos já o fizeram, substituindo o grand jury por uma audiência preliminar (preliminary hearing).

Em relação à tradução de grand jury, identificamos, pelo menos, duas situações que exigiriam estratégias diferentes. Em contextos destacando o tamanho do júri, a tradução de grand jury por grande júri nos parece adequada. Já em contextos destacando a natureza da função do grand jury, traduções explicativa tais como júri responsável por proferir a sentença de pronúncia, júri de pronunciamento e variações.

Colocações nominais5 na estrutura 'adjetivo + jury' e respectivas sugestões de tradução:

1. African-American jury: júri/corpo de jurados composto por afro-americanos

"And you can not forget that this is a mainly African-American jury, which does not mean that they will make a decision based on racism, but they may well make a decision based on the LAPD that they personally have experienced, which is a very different police department than the white people in this town have experienced."

2. all-male jury: júri/corpo de jurados composto apenas por homens

"Another all-white, all-male jury again could not bring themselves to convict the former policeman of murder and again returned a verdict of manslaughter with a recommended sentence of one-to-three years."

3. all-white-jury: corpo de jurados composto apenas por brancos

"Faced with the prospect of an all-white jury hearing this music in the courtroom, the defense lawyers objected."

4. American jury: [sistema do] júri americano

"During the past two decades, the clout of the American jury and the authority it wields have grown to historic levels, according to judges, lawyers and law professors."

5. biased jury: júri parcial, júri tendencioso

"As a result of the system's effort to prevent having a biased jury, anyone with any subject matter familiarity usually is excused from service."

6. black jury: júri composto por negros

"A lawyer friend once told me about a case she prosecuted where a Black jury acquitted a Black rapist despite DNA evidence because they simply did not want to see another "Brother" sent to prison."

7. civil jury: júri em ação civil, júri civil

"A Montgomery civil jury heard the case and returned a verdict of fraud and breach of contract against Aron."

8. deadlocked jury: júri indeciso

"After the jury returned to the courtroom and announced the two verdicts, Jackson delivered a last-resort instruction designed to encourage a deadlocked jury to deliberate further."

9. fair jury: júri justo

"Well, we won the case by getting a fair jury."

10. federal jury: [tribunal do] júri federal, júri em ação [por crime] federal

"A federal jury in Mississippi has convicted James Ford Seale of kidnapping and conspiracy."

11. grand jury: grande júri, júri de pronunciamento

"He gets subpoenaed to appear before a grand jury investigating a CIA leak from the White House."

12. hung jury: júri indeciso

"The first trial was a hung jury, so I had to go back to court for a second trial."

13. impartial jury: júri imparcial

"This year, it's received 600 cases, 300 relating to matters of due process, such as the right to an impartial jury."

14. lay jury: júri leigo

"The usual rules of evidence, designed to protect a lay jury from prejudicial information, would not apply in an impeachment trial"

15. military jury: júri militar

"The military jury rejected a murder charge against Welshofer and acquitted him of assault."

16. mock jury: júri simulado

"At our request, the New York jury consulting firm, DOAR, assembled a mock jury, much like they do for lawyers preparing for a case."

17. new jury: novo júri

"But fearing that in the original sentencing hearing, the first jury might have been tainted by a reference to the killing of the second teen-ager, the State Supreme Court ordered that a new jury hear re-arguments on a punishment."

18. petit jury: júri, pequeno júri ou júri de julgamento quando em contraposição ao grand jury

"The Court explained that although a defendant has " no right to a' petit jury composed in whole or in part of persons of his own race,' "... the " defendant does have the right to be tried by a jury whose members are selected pursuant to nondiscriminatory criteria."

19. runway jury: júri que profere sentença excessivamente onerosa

"To corporate defense lawyers, the New Orleans case was another example of a runaway jury doling out an award way out of proportion to the damage that in this case was hard to identify."

20. sequestered jury: júri incomunicável

"Willie Cravin and Jeanette Harris feel as though they have had some negative experiences from serving on the sequestration or being in a sequestered jury."

21. unanimous jury: júri unânime

"A unanimous jury sentenced Cooper to death for the crimes."

22. unbiased jury: júri imparcial

"In early August, lead defense attorney Shapiro said because of the 911 tapes and pretrial comments by the prosecution, he doubted Simpson would be able to get an unbiased jury."

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1 "Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation."

2 "Article III. Section 2- Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury trials […] The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed."

3 "Amendment 7 - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law."

4 "Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. […]."

5 Fonte dos exemplos: http://www.americancorpus.org/

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Luciana Carvalho Fonseca

Luciana Carvalho Fonseca é professora doutora do Departamento de Letras Modernas (DLM) da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas da Universidade de São Paulo (FFLCH/USP) e da pós-graduação em Tradução (TRADUSP). Fundadora da TradJuris - Law, Language and Culture e autora dos livros "Inglês Jurídico: Tradução e Terminologia" (2014) e "Eu não quero outra cesárea" (2016).