Domingo, 19 de maio de 2019

ISSN 1983-392X

Migalaw English

por Luciana Carvalho Fonseca

As colocações de punishment

segunda-feira, 20 de dezembro de 2010


As colocações de punishment

"Justice that love gives is a surrender, justice that law gives is a punishment." (Mahatma Gandhi)

Na coluna do dia 6/12/10 (clique aqui), falamos sobre a diferença entre penalty e punishment.

Na semana passada, pra complementá-la abordaremos os padrões linguísticos que coocorrem com penalty. Na coluna de hoje, selecionamos os padrões linguísticos de punishment, fornecendo contextos e respectivas traduções. A maioria dos exemplos foi retirada do COCA1.

1. appropriate punishment"After years of debate, most Americans now believe the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the most repulsive murders." Tradução: sanção/pena adequada

2. capital punishment"Viewing the Constitution through an originalist lens, Scalia [...] conclude[s] that he [Scalia] can not view the death penalty as unconstitutionally cruel and unusual, because capital punishment was commonplace in colonial times and is even expressly mentioned in the Constitution itself." Tradução: pena de morte

3. collective punishment"Further, collective punishment, or punishing a population for acts they did not commit, violates international humanitarian law - the Fourth Geneva Convention and the Hague Regulations." Tradução: sanção coletiva

4. corporal punishment"Historically, the Chinese authorities exploited these beliefs by using tattooing as an advanced form of corporal punishment." Tradução: pena de castigo corporal/físico

5. cruel and unusual punishment"Sentencing a child rapist to death is cruel and unusual punishment that violates the Eighth Amendment." Tradução: pena cruel, pena de tortura

6. cumulative punishment"Whatever the sequence may be, the Fifth Amendment forbids successive prosecution and cumulative punishment for a greater and lesser included offense."2 Tradução: pena cumulativa

7. deterrent punishment"Islamic law is probably best known for deterrent punishment which is the basis of the Islamic criminal system, and the discrimination against women."3 Tradução: dissuasão pela pena

8. excessive punishment"When we impose severe and excessive punishment, when we seek an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life, when we seek revenge on lawbreakers by some clumsy arithmetic we call justice, we become violent law abiders." Tradução: pena excessiva, pena exagerada

9. infamous punishment"It is not necessary, to make a punishment infamous, that the Law shall require that the party should in terms be sentenced to hard labor. If, under the law, he may be sentenced to a state prison or penitentiary, either with or without hard labor, his punishment is infamous."4 Tradução: pena severa, pena de prisão, pena restritiva de liberdade, pena de trabalho forçado

10. nonjudicial punishment"It's a form of nonjudicial punishment. It's where a captain, if he's in command of a vessel, or in this case, Admiral Fargo, as a fleet commander, can take a subordinate to mast in the form of nonjudicial punishment -- fine him; if he's enlisted, reduce him in rank; if he's an officer, give him a letter of reprimand, fine as well; house arrest for 30 days if the crime warrants it." Tradução: sanção/advertência militar

11. preventive punishment"In exceptional cases court can apply preventive punishment in the form of the custodial placement in relation to the arrested, suspected person[…]"5Tradução: sanção preventive, prisão preventiva

12. reformative punishment"Wickedness is essentially a psychosis or illness: to be cured by education, reformative punishment and therapy."6Tradução: sanção de natureza socioeducativa

13. retributive punishment"The critics of the heuristic insist that: (1) retributive punishment is indistinguishable from revenge;" Tradução: sanção retributive

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1 http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

2 Fonte do exemplo: http://lawschool.courtroomview.com/acf_cases/10382-brown-v-ohio

3 Fonte do exemplo: http://www.duhaime.org/LegalDictionary/I/IslamicLaw.aspx

4 Fonte do exemplo: http://openjurist.org/40/f1d/76

5 Fonte do exemplo: http://www.legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/id/9049

6 Fonte do exemplo: http://homepage.ntlworld.com/pharseas.world/Platonism.html

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Luciana Carvalho Fonseca

Luciana Carvalho Fonseca é professora doutora do Departamento de Letras Modernas (DLM) da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas da Universidade de São Paulo (FFLCH/USP) e da pós-graduação em Tradução (TRADUSP). Fundadora da TradJuris - Law, Language and Culture e autora dos livros "Inglês Jurídico: Tradução e Terminologia" (2014) e "Eu não quero outra cesárea" (2016).